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Bangladesh

Bangladesh officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is bordered by India to its west, north and east; Myanmar (Burma) to its southeast; and is separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Chicken’s Neck corridor. To its south, it faces the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most populous country, with over 160 million people. It is one of the most densely populated countries, and among countries with a population exceeding 10 million, it is the most densely populated. It forms part of the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal, along with the neighbouring Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura.

The present-day borders of Bangladesh took shape during the Partition of Bengal and the British India in 1947, when the region came to be known as East Pakistan, as a part of the newly formed state of Pakistan. It was separated from West Pakistan by 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) of Indian territory. Because of political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination and economic neglect by the politically dominant western wing, nationalism, popular agitation and civil disobedience led to the Bangladesh Liberation War and independence in 1971. After independence, the new state endured poverty, famine, political turmoil and military coups. The restoration of democracy in 1991 has been followed by relative calm and economic progress. In 2014, the Bangladeshi general election was boycotted by major opposition parties, resulting in a parliament and government dominated by the Awami League and its smaller coalition partners.

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad. The native Bengalis form the country's largest ethnic group, along with indigenous peoples in northern and southeastern districts. Geographically, the country is dominated by the fertile Bengal delta, the world's largest delta. This also gives Bangladesh a unique name tag as "the land of rivers". Bangladesh has a rich heritage of ancient civilization. Bangladesh's documented history spans 4,000 years. Bangladesh human history has lasted for more than 20,000 years.

Bangladesh is a Next Eleven emerging economy. It has achieved significant strides in human and social development since independence, including progress in gender equity, universal primary education, food production, health, and population control. However, Bangladesh continues to face numerous political, economic, social and environmental challenges, including political instability, corruption, poverty, overpopulation, and global warming.

The country is a founding member of SAARC, the Developing 8 Countries and BIMSTEC. It contributes one of the largest peacekeeping forces to the United Nations. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Administrative Divisions of Bangladesh

Division
Capital
Established
Area (km)
Population
Density
Barisal
Barisal
1 January 1993
13,297
8,325,666
626
Chittagong
Chittagong
1829
33,771
28,423,019
841
Dhaka
Dhaka
1829
20,593
36,054,418
1,751
Khulna
Khulna
1 October 1960
22,272
15,687,759
704
Mymensingh
Mymensingh
14 Sept 2015
10,584
11,370,000
1,074
Rajshahi
Rajshahi
1829
18,197
18,484,858
1,015
Rangpur
Rangpur
25 January 2010
16,317
15,787,758
960
Sylhet
Sylhet
1 August 1995
12,596
9,910,219
780

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